1xEV-DOcdma2000 Evolution, Data Optimized (aka Access Authentication)
1xRTTcdma2000 Radio Transmission Technology
2GSecond generation wireless digital technology. Fully digital 2G networks have replaced analog 1G, which originated in the 1980s
2,5GIt's a stepping stone that bridged 2G to 3G wireless technology and is sometimes used to describe those evolved technologies that were first considered as being 2G. While 2G and 3G have been officially defined as wireless standards by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 2.5G has not been defined and was created only for the purposes of marketing.
3DESTriple Data Encryption Standard
3GIt is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology. 3G supersedes 2G technology and precedes 4G technology. Current 3G systems have been established through ITU’s project on International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). UMTS-HSPA is the world’s leading 3G technology
3,5GSimilar to the 2.5G acronym, the reference to 3.5G is not an officially recognized standard by the ITU. It is an interim or evolutionary step to the next generation of cellular technology that will be known as IMT-Advanced according to definitions by the ITU. IMT-Advanced will comprise the fourth generation of cell phone technology. The acronym 3.5G is also known as “beyond 3G.” 4G Americas does not use the terms 3.5G (or 2.5G) in respect of the official definitions provided by the ITU. The technologies within the GSM family that are considered as beyond 3G include HSPA+ and LTE. These 3.5G technologies are often called pre-4G as well
3GPP3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP2Third Generation Partnership Project 2
4GFourth generation of mobile wireless services that has been defined by the ITU and its Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) and established as an agreed upon and globally accepted definition in IMT-Advanced. Current LTE and WiMAX implementations are often cited in the marketplace as 4G, although they don't fully comply with the planned requirements of 1 Gbps for stationary reception and 100 Mbps for mobile. The common argument for branding LTE and WiMAX systems as 4G is that they use different frequency bands to 3G technologies; that they are based on a new radio-interface paradigm; and that the standards are not backwards compatible with 3G, while some of the standards are expected to be forwards compatible with "real" 4G technologies. See also LTE and WiMAX
AAAAuthentication, Authorization, and Accounting
ACAuthentication Center
ACCESS AUTHENTICATIONcdma2000 Evolution, Data Optimized (aka 1xEV-DO)
ACQUISITION TABLEAn indexed list of frequencies on which the device may search for particular systems. The idea behind the acquisition table is to optimize the acquisition time by identifying only the frequencies that should be searched, rather than searching the entire frequency spectrum. The information contained in each acquisition table entry includes an index, the network type, and associated channel blocks
ACTIVE PILOTBase station(s) currently serving a call. A base station usually has 3 pilot numbers. Also See PN Offset
AGREEMENTRefers to the International Roaming Agreement, including all attachments and appendices attached thereto and each Party’s “Technical Data Sheet (TDS),” provided from time to time, to which general terms and conditions for roaming are attached. Also See IRA
AHAuthentication Header
AKAAuthentication and Key Agreement
AMBRAggregate Max Bit Rate
AMPSAdvanced Mobile Phone System
ANAccess Network
ANCHOR MSCAnchor Mobile Switching Center
ANIAutomatic Number Identification
ANIDAccess Network Identifiers
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
ANSI-41See TIA-41
APIApplication Programming Interface
APNAccess Point Name
ARPAuthorized Receipt Point
ARPAlternative Roaming Provider
ASAutonomous System
ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange
ATAccess Terminal
ATMAsynchronous Transfer Mode
AUTHENTICATIONProcess used to verify the authenticity of mobile devices
AUTHORIZATIONProcess of verifying that a roamer is allowed to use the serving network and allowed to access particular features
AUTHORIZED ROAMERA roamer using equipment with (a) the IRM listed in accordance with Section 3.1 of Appendix A, Doc #144 or (b) the MBI/MIN combinations listed in accordance with Section 3.1 of Appendix A, Doc #144 for whom the Serving Carrier has received a positive validation in accordance with the provisions thereof.
AUTHUAuthentication Signature Response
AUTOMATIC CALL DELIVERYA feature that allows subscribers to receive incoming calls when they are roaming outside of their home coverage area.
AUTOMATIC ROAMINGThe ability of a serving network support roaming without requiring actions to be taken by the subscriber or the party calling the subscriber
AUTONOMOUS REGISTRATIONA timer-based registration mode in which the MS periodically registers with the network without requiring action to be taken by the subscriber. This feature allows a roamer whose MS is turned on to be automatically registered for call delivery and validation without receiving or placing a call and without having to dial a star (*) code. Aka Power-up registration, timer-based registration
A12 AUTHENTICATIONa.k.a. Access Authentication (for 1xEV-DO)
A-KEYAuthentication Key
BAAABroker Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
BANDA group of radio traffic channels reserved for the use of wireless service providers within a given service area.
BANDCLASSA set of frequency channels and a numbering scheme for these channels
BBSBase station subsystem
BCDBinary Coded Decimal
BGBorder Gateway
BGPBorder Gateway Protocol
BIDBilling Identification
BREWBinary Runtime Environment for Wireless
BROKERThe third-party vendor used by both Parties to enable packet data services, including AAA broker services, data billing support services, and detail reporting of packet data services.
BSABase Station Almanac
BSCBase Station Controller
BSC/RNCSubordinate to MTSO are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call, reassigning frequencies for handoffs, controlling handoffs so a mobile phone leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area, can be switched automatically to a channel in the next cell.
BSIDBase Station Identifier
BTSBase Transceiver Station
C7Common Channel Signaling 7 (CCS7 or C7), also known as Signaling System #7 (SS7)
CALL DISCONNECTThe process of requesting the release of a connection between two or more network addresses.
CALLER IDA supplementary service that allows a caller’s phone number to be displayed when an incoming call is received so that the recipient can see who is calling before deciding whether to answer the call. a.k.a. Caller Display, Caller Number Display (CND), Calling Line Identification (CLI), Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP), Calling Number Identification (CNID)
CALL RELEASEThe process of relinquishing the facilities and circuits used during a call
CALL TERMINATIONThe process of connecting a subscriber to an incoming call.
CAMELCustomized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
CANDIDCurrent ANID: a triplet consisting of the SID, NID, and PZID, that uniquely identifies an HRPD access network
CAVECellular Authentication and Voice Encryption
CAVE-based authenticationa.k.a. HLR Authentication, 2G Authentication, Access Authentication (for CDMA/1xRTT). Access authentication used in CDMA/1xRTT systems
CCDIRCall Control Directive
CDGCDMA Development Group
CDMACode division multiple access
CDMA2000CDMA2000 (also known as C2K or IMT Multi ‑ Carrier (IMT ‑ MC)) is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites. The name CDMA2000 actually denotes a family of standards that represent the successive, evolutionary stages of the underlying technology
CDRCall Detail Record
CDRCharging Data Record
CELL SITEThe physical location of a cell’s radio equipment and supporting systems. This term is also used to refer to the equipment located at the cell site. The basic geographic coverage area of a wireless system. When a wireless phone crosses the boundary from one cell to another, a handoff to the new cell and another radio frequency occurs.
CEPCentral Exchange Points
CFCACommunications Fraud Control Association
CHAPChallenge-handshake authentication protocol
CIBERCellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer
CLIENT OPERATORA Public Mobile Network operator that wishes to enter into a commercial relationship with the Provider in order to have International Roaming with Elected Connected Operators.
CLEARINGA process for exchanging billing records among roaming partners. During clearing, billing records may be converted from one format to another, validated or edited for errors, and processed for calculation and reporting of financial positions among roaming partners by a third party entity.
CLEARING HOUSEAn entity that acts as an Authorized Receipt Point (ARP) for a roaming operator to receive billing records on behalf of that operator for purposes of settlement and exchange with the operator’s roaming partners. A clearinghouse may provide wholesale and retail rating of billing records, as well as financial net settlement. See also DCH
CLICalling Line Identification - See Caller ID
CLIPCalling Line Identification Presentation - See Caller ID
CLLICommon Language Location Identifier
CLONESCommon Language Central Location Online Entry System - see CLLI
CLONING FRAUDUse of a clone to illegally obtain wireless service. If authentication is not performed, a clone will be able to mimic a legitimate MS. When this happens, all charges accrued by the clone are billed to the legitimate subscriber whose ESN and MSID are being illegally used. In a roaming scenario, cloning fraud is a significant concern because of the wholesale billing that occurs between roaming partners
CMEACellular Message Encryption Algorithm
CMSCard Management System
CNDCaller Number Display - See Caller ID
CNIDCalling Number Identification - See Caller ID
CNIPCalling Number Identification Presentation
CoACare-of-Address - See Mobile IP
CONNECTED OPERATORA Public Mobile Network operator which is connected to the Client Operator through their HUB or to a Third Party Roaming Hub Provider.
CONNRESConnect Resource
CPECustomer Premises Equipment
CPPCalling Party Pays
CRHCDMA Roaming Hub, See CDG
CRIETCDMA Roaming Information Exchange Tool
cRTPEnhanced Compressed RTP
CRXCDMA Packet Data Roaming Exchange
CSCircuit Switched
CSCFCall Session Control Function - See IMS
CSIMCDMA Subscriber Identity Module: Defined in 3GPP2 C.P0065, an RUIM on UICC Smartcard Platform
CSRCustomer Service Representative
CTIACellular Telecom. & Internet Association
DACCDirectory Assistance Call Completion
D-AMPSDigital Advanced Mobile Phone System
DCHData Clearing House. See also Clearing House
DCSData Clearing Service
DESData Encryption Standard
DH1Diffie-Helman group 1 key exchange
DH2Diffie-Helman group 2 key exchange
DiameterExtension protocol of RADIUS (AAA)
DNDigital Network
DNSDomain Name System
DPDetection Point
DRRRDirect Routing for Roamer to Roamer
DSCPDifferentiated Service Code Point
DSLDigital Subscriber Line
DTMFDual-tone multi-frequency signaling
Dual mode handsetA handset that supports two different air interface technologies. Traditionally, dual mode referred to the ability to support both analog and digital systems. However, because of the large number of air interface technologies now deployed, the term “multi-mode” has become common for handsets that support more than one technology.
EDIElectronic Data Interchange
EDGEEnhanced Data for Global Evolution
EDTElectronic Data Transfer
ELECTED CONNECTED OPERATORA Connected Operator elected by the Client Operator
ENCRYPTIONThe process of obscuring (i.e., encrypting) information using a secret key and algorithm. Once encrypted, a reverse processes (i.e., decryption) must be performed on the obscured information using the correct secret key and algorithm to make it readable again.
ENHANCED PRLA PRL that supports system records identified by SID/NID or MCC/MNC. Using MCC/MNC rather than SID/NID reduces the size and complexity of the PRL since one MCC may be used for an entire country instead of potentially tens or hundreds of SID values. Handsets receive MCC and MNC (IMSI_11_12) values in the Extended System Parameters Mesage (ESPM) broadcast by the network base station. a.k.a. ePRL
EPCEvolved Packet Core
EPDGEnhanced Packet Data Gateway
ERIEnhanced Roaming Indicator - See Roaming Indicator
ESAEnhanced Subscriber Authentication - See AKA
ESNElectronic Serial Number
ESPEncapsulating Security Payload
ESPMExtended System Parameters Message
ETSIEuropean Telecommunications Standards Institute
E-UTRANEvolved - UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
EV-DOEvolution - Data Optimized, See 1xEV-DO
FAForeign Agent - See Mobile IP
FCHFinancial Clearing House
FINANCIAL LIABILITYWhere the HUB agrees to take Financial Liability for invoicing, charging, billing and payment in respect of the Client Operator’s use of Elected Connected Operators’ IR Services on the basis of the applicable IOT as set out in the Roaming Hubbing Agreements.
FINANCIAL SETTLEMENTFinancial reconciliation between operators for providing roaming services to each other’s customers
FNOFixed Network Operators
FOTAFirmware Over-the-Air - See OTA
FQDNFully Qualified Domain Name
FR Frame Relay
FREQUENCY BLOCKA set of frequency channels within a Band Class indicated by a Frequency Block Designator (e.g., A, B, C, D, E, F)
GBRGuaranteed Bit Rate
GERANGSM/Edge Radio Access Network
GGSNGateway GPRS Support Node
GLOBAL CHALLENGESee CAVE-based Authentication
GMTGreenwich Mean Time
GPRSGeneral Packet Radio Service
GREGeneric Routing Encapsulation
GRQGlobal Roaming Quality
GRXGPRS Roaming Exchange
GSMGlobal System for Mobile Communications
GTAGlobal Title Address
GTPGPRS Tunneling Protocol
GTTGlobal Title Translation
HAHome Agent - See Mobile IP
HAAAHome Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting
HANDOFFProcess by which a call in progress on a radio channel may be transferred to another radio channel without interruption to the ongoing communication. Process by which a wireless data session interface is moved from one entity to another while maintaining continuity of IP bindings or PPP link layer state
HDCLHigh-level Data Link Control
HDRHigh Data Rate
HGGSNHome Gateway GPRS Support Node
HLRHome Locator Register
HMAC-MD5keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code using MD5
HMAC-SHA-1keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code using SHA-1
H-MPCHome Mobile Positioning Center
HLRHome Location Register
HNIHome Network Identifier - See IMSI
HOa.k.a. Handover, see Handoff
HOME CARRIERA party that provides, either directly or through its exercise of control over a licensee, wireless services to its (or its Licensee’s) customers in a market.
HOME SID/NID LISTA list of home systems in a handset’s NV-RAM
HOME SYSTEMFrom the MS perspective, the home system is the system that transmits a SID value recognized by the MS as its home SID. When a user is not roaming, they are in their home system. a.k.a. Home Network
H-PDEHome Positioning Determination Entity
HPMNHome Public Mobile Network: a party who is providing mobile telecommunications services to its Roaming Customers in a geographic area where it holds a license or has a right to establish and operate a Public Mobile Network
HRPDHigh Rate Packet Data - See 1xEV-DO
HRPD SESSIONRefers to a shared state between a 1xEV-DO AT and the AN. This shared state stores the protocols and configuration data that were negotiated for communications between the AT and AN
HSSHome Subscriber Server - See IMS
HUBAn entity which provides the technical and commercial means to facilitate the deployment and operation of International Roaming Services between the Client Operator and Elected Connected Operators
HURHigh Usage Report
HYBRID DEVICEA device capable of operating on both 1xRTT and 1xEV-DO access networks. a.k.a. Hybrid MS/AT, Hybrid Terminal
IAMInitial Address Message
ICCInternational Chamber of Commerce
IDDInternational Direct Dialing
IDDIterative Detection and Decoding
IETFInternet Engineering Task Force
IFASTInternational Forum on ANSI-41 Standards Technology
IIFInterworking and Interoperability Function
IKEInternet Key Exchange
IMEIInternational Mobile Equipment Identity
IMFInternational Monetary Fund
IMMInstant Multi-Media
IMSIP Multimedia Subsystem
IMSIInternational Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMSI 11 12The 11th and 12th digits of the IMSI. a.k.a. MNC (if a two digit MNC is being used)
IMT-2000International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
INBOUND ROAMERFrom an operator’s perspective, someone else’s subscriber that has roamed into that operator’s network and is receiving service. For example, if a subscriber from operator A roams into operator B’s network, that subscriber is an inbound roamer from operator B’s perspective
INFIndustry Negative File
INSTREQInstruction Request
INTERCONNECTIONThe routing of telecommunications traffic between the networks of different communications companies
INTER-STANDARD ROAMINGWhile generically, inter-standard roaming refers to roaming between any two different mobile technology standards, it most commonly refers to roaming between CDMA and GSM networks
IOTInter Operator Tariff
IPInternet Protocol
IPIntelligent Peripheral
IPCPInternet Protocol Control Protocol
IPLCInternational Private Leased Circuit
IPRIntellectual Property Rights
IPsecIP Security Protocol
Ipsec SAIPSec Security Association
Ipsec SPIIPSec Security Parameter Index
IPv4Internet Protocol Version 4
IPXInternet Packet Exchange
IRInternational Roaming
IRAInternational Roaming Agreement
IRMInternational Roaming MIN
IRTInternational Roaming Team
IREGInternational Roaming Expert Group
ISPInternet Service Provider
IS-20001xRTT air interface, superseded by TIA-2000
IS-41Superseded by TIA-41
IS-835Network specification for cdma2000 wireless IP network architecture. IS-835 is the basis for supporting packet data roaming between operator networks
IS-856Superseded by TIA-856
IS-8651xEV-DO air interface
IS-95Air interface specification for CDMA
ISAKMPInternet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
ISDNIntegrated Servuces Digital Network
ISGInternational Signaling Gateway
ISUPIntegrated Services User Part
ITUInternational Telecommunications Union
ITU-TTelecommunication Standardization Sector
IVRInteractive Voice Response
J-STD-038TIA standard for network interworking between GSM MAP and ANSI-41 MAP
KEYAn algorithmic pattern used by a sender to encrypt messages, and by a recipient to decrypt them
L2TPLayer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LACL2TP Access Concentrator - See L2TP
LANLocal Area Network
LBSLocation Based Service
LCPLink Control Protocol
LICENSEEA license or permit holder authorized by governmental authorities to operate a wireless system and provide wireless services in the relevant market(s)
LINE RANGEConsecutive sequence of phone numbers assigned to the same MSC (i.e., associated with the same NPA-NXX). For example, a line range from 858-248-0000 to 858-248-9999 specifies a line range of 10,000 phone numbers, all belonging to the MSC identified by NPA 858 and NXX 274. International voice roaming partners must exchange line ranges of potential roamers so that they can be provisioned in each other’s networks. If a line range containing a user’s phone number has not been provisioned in a partner network, the user will not be able to roam in that network.
LLCLeased Line Circuit
LNSL2TP Network Server - See L2TP
locreqLocation Request RETURN RESULT
LOCREQLocation Request INVOKE
LSBLeast Significant Bit
LTELong Term Evolution
MABELMajor Account Billing Exchange Logistical
MAPMobile Application Part - See TIA-41
MARKET(a) The geographical area, identified by a SID, BID, or other like governmental identifier, in which a Person has a license or permit to provide Wireless Services, or (b) the licenses and/or permits and associated wireless system assets a Person owns or leases and deploys to provide Wireless Service in a geographical area identified by a SID, BID, or other like governmental identifier
MBIMIN Block Identifier
MBWAMobile Broadband Wireless Access
MCMessage Center - See SMS
MCCMobile Country Code
MD5Message-Digest algorithm 5
MDNMobile Directory Number
MEMobile Equipment
MEIDMobile Equipment Identifier
MGCFMedia Gateway Control Function
MGWMedia Gateway
MINMobile Identification Number
MIPMobile IP - See Mobile IP
MMDMultimedia Domain
MMEMobile Management Entity
MMSMultimedia Messaging Service
MNMobile Node
MNCMobile Network Code
MNOMobile Network Operators
MN IDMobile Node Identifier - See A12 Authentication
MOMobile Originated
MOBILE IPDefined by IETF RFC 3344, Mobile IP is an architecture that allows a mobile device to move from one network to another while maintaining the same IP address. a.k.a. MIP, MIPv4 (MIP for IPv4), MIPv6 (MIP for IPv6)
MRFCMultimedia Resource Function Controller
MRFPMultimedia Resource Function Processor
MSMobile Station
MS/ATMobile Station/ Access Terminal
MSBMost Significant Bit
MSCMobile Switching Center
MSCIDMobile Switching Center Identification
MSCINMSC Identification Number
MSIDMobile Station Identity or Identifier
MSISDNMobile Subscriber ISDN Number
MSINMobile Subscription Identification Number
MSLMaster Subsidy Lock
MSRNMobile Subscriber Roaming Number
MTMobile Terminated
MTPMessage Transfer Part
MTSOMobile Telephone Switching Office - See MSC
MULTI-BAND HANDSETA handset that operates in multiple frequency bands
MULTI-MODE HANDSETA handset that supports multiple air interface technologies
MVNOMobile Virtual Network Operator
NAINetwork Access Identifier
NAMNumber Assignment Module
NANPNorth American Numbering Plan
NASNetwork Access Server
NATNetwork Address Translation
NATIONAL ZONESCoverage space that is national and is bound to the license/ authorisation of that country/region
NCPNetwork Control Protocol
NDDNational Direct Dial
NET SETTLEMENTThe monthly accumulation of financial positions between roaming partners, identifying total payables and receivable position of each operator. In GSM, the normal settlement period is a calendar month.
NIDNetwork Identification
NMSINational Mobile Station Identity
NON TERRESTRIAL OPERATORSOperators that are wholly independent from any Terrestrial network and operate in International Zones and National Zones where they are authorised to do so
NON TERRESTRIAL ROAMINGRoaming service provided by Non Terrestrial Operators
NTNENon-Terrestrial Network Extensions. A Non-Terrestrial Network Extension is where a Host Operator (where the Host Operator may be Terrestrial or Non-Terrestrial) extends its network into Non-terrestrial areas e.g. in International Zones and National Zones where they are authorised to do so. The extension is known as the Client Operator and considered a Non-Terrestrial Network Extension or NTNE
NRTDREIt is a GSMA initiative, being adopted by Operators, that reduces the risk of roaming fraud
NSName Server
OCOpen Connectivity
OMAOpen Mobile Alliance
OTAOver-The-Air Programming
OTA SPOver-The-Air Service Provisioning
OUTBOUND ROAMERFrom an operator’s perspective, an outbound roamer is one of their subscribers that has roamed out of their home network and is receiving service from a partner’s network. For example, if a subscriber from operator A roams into operator B’s network, that subscriber is an outbound roamer from operator A’s perspective
PACKET DATA SERVICEA general term used for any packet switched data service offered by an access provider network to a user through the user’s MS
PACKET DATA SERVICE OPTIONA service option value that identifies a packet switched data service
PACKET DATA SESSIONAn instance of use of packet data service by a mobile user. A packet data session begins when the user invokes packet data service. A packet data session ends when the user or the network terminates packet data service
PaDIRTPacket Data International Roaming Team, transitioned to the Technical Working Group (TWG)
PAPPassword Authentication Protocol
PCPoint Code
PCFPacket Control Function
PCSPersonal Communications Service
PDEPosition Determination Entity
PDNPacket Data Network
PDN GWPacket Data Network Gateway
PDPPacket Data Protocol
PDSNPacket data serving node
PINPersonal Identification Number - See RVR
PLUS CODE DIALINGCode dialing. a.k.a. +
PMIP6Proxy Mobile IPv6
PMNPublic Mobile Network
PN OffsetOffset is one of the 512 short code sequences used to differentiate sectors on base stations for communication with mobile units. PN stands for pseudo random noise that appears in a repetitive manner. The PN sequence forms a “short” code that is 32,768 chips in length and repeats every 26.666 milliseconds
PoCPush to Talk over Cellular
P-PPDSN-PDSN interface
PPMPilot Phase Measurements
PPPPoint-to-Point Protocol
PPP SESSIONPoint-to-Point Protocol Session
PPTPPoint-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PRDPermanent Reference Document
PREFERRED ROAMINGProcess by which a mobile operator decides which partner their subscribers will use whilst roaming.Today there are two main methods in use: network based and SIM based steering. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. Some operators will use both approaches together. See also Steering of Roaming
PRLPreferred Roaming List
PROFILINGFraud detection technique that compares current calling activity against a variety of dynamic factors to identify abnormal activity that may indicate fraud
PSTNPublic Switched Telephone Network
PTCPush to Chat
PTTPush to Talk, see PoC
PVPre-Call Validation
PVIPacket Voice Interconnect
PZIDPacket Zone Identification
QoSQuality of Service
RAEXRoaming Agreement Exchange
RAPReject Account Procedure
RADIUSRemote Authentication Dial In User Service
RANRadio Access Network - See AN
REGNOTRegistration Notification
REPLAYA replay attack involves reuse of previous messaging (e.g. MIP registration request). Systems that do not provide sequence integrity are vulnerable to these types of attacks
RFCRequest For Comments
RLPRadio Link Protocol
RNRadio Network - See AN
RNCRadio Network Controller